The Prince [Niccolo Machiavelli] on nessmorrrazzcontde.ga The Prince (Macmillan Collector's Library) and millions of other books are available for instant access. view. The Prince is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. to navigation Jump to search. This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. For other uses, see Prince (disambiguation). Readers have differed sharply in their assessments of The Prince, as well as the character of its author, Niccolò Machiavelli, since the book's publication in
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Download free eBooks of classic literature, books and novels at Planet eBook. The Prince. Nicolo Machiavelli, born at Florence on 3rd May From. The Prince book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Machiavelli needs to be looked at as he really was. Hence: Can Machia. . The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. To the great Lorenzo Di Piero De Medici. Those who try to obtain the favourable attention of a prince are accustomed to come.
He speaks of the need of the Prince to be able to deceive and act against the "five" virtues of the righteous man when necessary for the betterment of his state and his people.
Therefore it is unnecessary for a prince to have all the good qualities I have enumerated, but it is very necessary to appear to have them.
And I shall dare to say this also, that to have them and always to observe them is injurious, and that to appear to have them is useful; to appear merciful, faithful, humane, religious, upright, and to be so, but with a mind so framed that should you require not to be so, you may be able and know how to change to the opposite.
The promise given was a necessity of the past: the word broken is a necessity of the present. Machiavelli discusses numerous examples of sovereigns who either benefitted from following such advice or, conversely, who suffered calamity for adhering to a sense of virtue. So much of what Machiavelli says is now an ingrained part of political thinking that it comes across as DUH when you read it.
However, it was Niccolo who first put forth these concepts that have become the dogma and foundation of modern political thought.
Something the famous rulers of history have always known…and practiced. In addition, I was surprised at how much fun the book was to read. Machiavelli includes dozens and dozens of brief vignettes about world history in supporting his ideas and does a great job keeping the reader engaged with colorful descriptions of past events.
Machiavelli thus sets the stage for an enduring discussion among his readers.
Is he best understood as a seeker of unity and peace, concerned to make his advice practical and effective? Is he an opportunist offering aid and comfort to would-be tyrants? Do the moral and political goals he outlines in the final chapter of The Prince justify the actions he advocates in the preceding chapters? Evidence suggests that Machiavelli was an upright man, a good father, and a husband who lived in affectionate harmony with his wife, Marietta Corsini, who bore him six children.
Throughout his life, Machiavelli was a zealous republican. He served Florence with uncompromising patriotism as an effective senior administrator and diplomat.
But his single-minded service to the republic of Florence ended when the army of the Holy League of Pope Julius II returned the Medici family to power as benevolent despots of the city. In the resulting political purge, Machiavelli not only lost his position in the city government but, when a conspiracy against the Medicis was uncovered in early , he also was accused of complicity simply because his name was on a list taken from the conspirators.
Thrown into prison and subjected to the kind of torture that forced blameless men to confess their guilt, Machiavelli nevertheless maintained his innocence and was eventually released. Reduced to poverty, and with restrictions placed on his movements around the city, Machiavelli sought refuge in the little property, outside Florence, that he had inherited from his father.
There he produced not only The Prince, which he completed between the spring and autumn of , but also a variety of political commentaries and histories and a number of well-received literary works. That hope was in vain. Machiavelli died at the age of 58, still exiled from Florence. Does The Prince present justice as nothing more than the interest of the stronger? Does Machiavelli believe that ethical considerations have a role to play in the conduct of a prince?
Thus, as long as the city is properly defended and has enough supplies, a wise prince can withstand any siege. Machiavelli stands strongly against the use of mercenaries , and in this he was innovative, and he also had personal experience in Florence.
He believes they are useless to a ruler because they are undisciplined, cowardly, and without any loyalty, being motivated only by money.
Machiavelli also warns against using auxiliary forces, troops borrowed from an ally, because if they win, the employer is under their favor and if they lose, he is ruined. Auxiliary forces are more dangerous than mercenary forces because they are united and controlled by capable leaders who may turn against the employer. The main concern for a prince should be war, or the preparation thereof, not books.
Through war a hereditary prince maintains his power or a private citizen rises to power. Machiavelli advises that a prince must frequently hunt in order to keep his body fit and learn the landscape surrounding his kingdom.
Through this, he can best learn how to protect his territory and advance upon others. For intellectual strength, he is advised to study great military men so he may imitate their successes and avoid their mistakes.
A prince who is diligent in times of peace will be ready in times of adversity. However, the advice is far from traditional.
A Prince's Duty Concerning Military Matters Chapter 14 [ edit ] Machiavelli believes that a prince's main focus should be on perfecting the art of war. He believes that by taking this profession an aspiring prince will be able to acquire a state, and will be able to maintain what he has gained. He claims that "being disarmed makes you despised. The two activities Machiavelli recommends practicing to prepare for war are physical and mental.
Physically, he believes rulers should learn the landscape of their territories. Mentally, he encouraged the study of past military events. He also warns against idleness. Machiavelli reasons that since princes come across men who are evil, he should learn how to be as equally evil himself, and use this ability or not according to necessity. Concerning the behavior of a prince toward his subjects, Machiavelli announces that he will depart from what other writers say, and writes: Men have imagined republics and principalities that never really existed at all.
Yet the way men live is so far removed from the way they ought to live that anyone who abandons what is for what should be pursues his downfall rather than his preservation; for a man who strives after goodness in all his acts is sure to come to ruin, since there are so many men who are not good.
Since there are many possible qualities that a prince can be said to possess, he must not be overly concerned about having all the good ones.
Also, a prince may be perceived to be merciful, faithful, humane, frank, and religious, but most important is only to seem to have these qualities. A prince cannot truly have these qualities because at times it is necessary to act against them. In fact, he must sometimes deliberately choose evil.
Although a bad reputation should be avoided, it is sometimes necessary to have one. Generosity vs. Additionally, being overly generous is not economical, because eventually all resources will be exhausted. This results in higher taxes, and will bring grief upon the prince. Then, if he decides to discontinue or limit his generosity, he will be labeled as a miser.
A wise prince should be willing to be more reputed a miser than be hated for trying to be too generous. On the other hand: "of what is not yours or your subjects' one can be a bigger giver, as were Cyrus , Caesar , and Alexander , because spending what is someone else's does not take reputation from you but adds it to you; only spending your own hurts you". Cruelty vs. Mercy Chapter 17 [ edit ] Hannibal meeting Scipio Africanus. Machiavelli describes Hannibal as having the " virtue " of "inhuman cruelty".
But he lost to someone, Scipio Africanus , who showed the weakness of "excessive mercy" and who could therefore only have held power in a republic. Machiavelli begins this chapter by addressing how mercy can be misused which will harm the prince and his dominion.
He ends by stating that a prince should not shrink from being cruel if it means that it will keep his subjects in line. After all, it will help him maintain his rule. He gives the example of Cesare Borgia , whose cruelty protected him from rebellions.
Yet, a prince must ensure that he is not feared to the point of hatred, which is very possible. Above all, Machiavelli argues, a prince should not interfere with the property of their subjects, their women, or the life of somebody without proper justification. Regarding the troops of the prince, fear is absolutely necessary to keep a large garrison united and a prince should not mind the thought of cruelty in that regard.
For a prince who leads his own army, it is imperative for him to observe cruelty because that is the only way he can command his soldiers' absolute respect.
Machiavelli compares two great military leaders: Hannibal and Scipio Africanus. Although Hannibal's army consisted of men of various races, they were never rebellious because they feared their leader. Machiavelli says this required "inhuman cruelty" which he refers to as a virtue. Scipio's men, on the other hand, were known for their mutiny and dissension, due to Scipio's "excessive mercy" — which was, however, a source of glory because he lived in a republic. In what way princes should keep their word Chapter 18 [ edit ] Machiavelli notes that a prince is praised for keeping his word.
However, he also notes that in reality, the most cunning princes succeed politically. A prince, therefore, should only keep his word when it suits his purposes, but do his utmost to maintain the illusion that he does keep his word and that he is reliable in that regard.
Machiavelli advises the ruler to become a "great liar and deceiver", and that men are so easy to deceive, that the ruler won't have an issue with lying to others. He justifies this by saying that men are wicked, and never keep their words, therefore the ruler doesn't have to keep his. And indeed he should be so.
But his disposition should be such that, if he needs to be the opposite, he knows how. In this chapter, Machiavelli uses "beasts" as a metaphor for unscrupulous behavior. He states that while lawful conduct is part of the nature of men, a prince should learn how to use the nature of both men and beasts wisely to ensure the stability of his regime.
In this chapter however, his focus is solely on the "beastly" natures. In employing this metaphor, Machiavelli apparently references De Officiis by the Roman orator and statesman Cicero , and subverts its conclusion, arguing instead that dishonorable behavior is sometimes politically necessary. Internal fears exist inside his kingdom and focus on his subjects, Machiavelli warns to be suspicious of everyone when hostile attitudes emerge. Machiavelli observes that the majority of men are content as long as they are not deprived of their property and women, and only a minority of men are ambitious enough to be a concern.
A prince should command respect through his conduct, because a prince who does not raise the contempt of the nobles and keeps the people satisfied, Machiavelli assures, should have no fear of conspirators working with external powers.
Conspiracy is very difficult and risky in such a situation. Roman emperors, on the other hand, had not only the majority and ambitious minority, but also a cruel and greedy military, who created extra problems because they demanded. While a prince should avoid being hated, he will eventually be hated by someone, so he must at least avoid the hatred of the most powerful, and for the Roman emperors this included the military who demanded iniquity against the people out of their own greed.
He uses Septimius Severus as a model for new rulers to emulate, as he "embodied both the fox and the lion". Severus outwitted and killed his military rivals, and although he oppressed the people, Machiavelli says that he kept the common people "satisfied and stupified". Only once a regime is stable can a prince safely be like Marcus Aurelius , benign, just and an enemy to cruelty because he was a hereditary ruler.
Machiavelli notes that in his time only the Turkish empire had the problem of the Romans, because in other lands the people had become more powerful than the military. The Prudence of the Prince Chapters 20—25 [ edit ] Whether ruling conquests with fortresses works Chapter 20 [ edit ] Machiavelli mentions that placing fortresses in conquered territories, although it sometimes works, often fails.
Using fortresses can be a good plan, but Machiavelli says he shall "blame anyone who, trusting in fortresses, thinks little of being hated by the people". He cited Caterina Sforza , who used a fortress to defend herself but was eventually betrayed by her people Gaining honours Chapter 21 [ edit ] A prince truly earns honour by completing great feats.
King Ferdinand of Spain is cited by Machiavelli as an example of a monarch who gained esteem by showing his ability through great feats and who, in the name of religion, conquered many territories and kept his subjects occupied so that they had no chance to rebel. Regarding two warring states, Machiavelli asserts it is always wiser to choose a side, rather than to be neutral.
Machiavelli then provides the following reasons why: If your allies win, you benefit whether or not you have more power than they have.
If you are more powerful, then your allies are under your command; if your allies are stronger, they will always feel a certain obligation to you for your help. If your side loses, you still have an ally in the loser.
Machiavelli also notes that it is wise for a prince not to ally with a stronger force unless compelled to do so. In conclusion, the most important virtue is having the wisdom to discern what ventures will come with the most reward and then pursuing them courageously. Machiavelli asserts that there are three types of intelligence: The kind that understands things for itself — which is excellent to have. The kind that understands what others can understand — which is good to have.
The kind that does not understand for itself, nor through others — which is useless to have.